Welcome to India's first Website with complete information on Infectious deseases, Vaccines, Immunisation and Immunoglobulins. + + + Become a registered member of the site and recieve latest balanced information from the world of Vaccines.
PDF Print E-mail

Managing Confirmed or Suspected Infections

As a component of the Nation’s critical infrastructure, emergency medical services (along with other emergency services) play a vital role in responding to requests for assistance, triaging patients, and providing emergency treatment to influenza patients. However, unlike patient care in the controlled environment of a fixed medical facility, prehospital EMS patient care is provided in an uncontrolled environment, often confined to a very small space, and frequently requires rapid medical decision-making, and interventions with limited information. EMS personnel are frequently unable to determine the patient history before having to administer emergency care.

Interim Recommendations

Coordination among PSAPs, the EMS system, healthcare facilities (e.g. emergency departments), and the public health system is important for a coordinated response to swine-origin influenza A (H1N1). Each 9-1-1 and EMS system should seek the involvement of an EMS medical director to provide appropriate medical oversight. Given the uncertainty of the disease, its treatment, and its progression, the ongoing role of EMS medical directors is critically important. The guidance provided in this document is based on current knowledge of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1).

The U.S. Department of Transportation's EMS Pandemic Influenza Guidelines for Statewide Adoption and Preparing for Pandemic Influenza: Recommendations for Protocol Development and 9-1-1 Personnel and Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) are available online at www.ems.gov (Click on Pandemic News). State and local EMS agencies should review these documents for additional information. For instance, Guideline 6.1 addresses protection of the EMS and 9-1-1 workers and their families while Guideline 6.2 addresses vaccines and antiviral medications for EMS personnel. Also, EMS Agencies should work with their occupational health programs and/or local public health/public safety agencies to make sure that long term personal protective equipment (PPE) needs and antiviral medication needs are addressed.

Infectious Period

Persons with swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection should be considered potentially infectious from one day before to 7 days following illness onset. Persons who continue to be ill longer than 7 days after illness onset should be considered potentially contagious until symptoms have resolved. Children, especially younger children, might potentially be contagious for longer periods.

Non-hospitalized ill persons who are a confirmed or suspected case of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection are recommended to stay at home (voluntary isolation) for at least the first 7 days after checking with their health care provider about any special care they might need if they are pregnant or have a health condition such as diabetes, heart disease, asthma, or emphysema. Learn more about how to take care of someone who is ill in "Taking Care of a Sick Person in your Home."

Case Definitions for Infection with Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus

View the Case Definitions for Confirmed, Probable and Suspected cases.

Recommendations for 9-1-1 Public Safety Answering Points (PSAP)

It is important for the PSAPs to question callers to ascertain if there is anyone at the incident location who is possibly afflicted by the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus, to communicate the possible risk to EMS personnel prior to arrival, and to assign the appropriate EMS resources. PSAPs should review existing medical dispatch procedures and coordinate any modifications with their EMS medical director and in coordination with their local department of public health.

Interim recommendations:

  • PSAP call takers should screen all callers for any symptoms of acute febrile respiratory illness. Callers should be asked if they, or someone at the incident location, has had nasal congestion, cough, fever or other flu-like symptoms.
    • If the PSAP call taker suspects a caller is noting symptoms of acute febrile respiratory febrile illness, they should make sure any first responders and EMS personnel are aware of the potential for “acute febrile respiratory illness” before the responders arrive on scene.

Recommendations for EMS and Medical First Responder Personnel Including Firefighter and Law Enforcement First Responders

For purposes of this section, “EMS providers” means prehospital EMS, Law Enforcement and Fire Service First Responders.” EMS providers' practice should be based on the most up-to-date swine-origin influenza clinical recommendations and information from appropriate public health authorities and EMS medical direction.

Patient assessment:

Interim recommendations:

If there HAS NOT been swine-origin influenza reported in the geographic area (See U.S. Human Cases of H1N1 Flu Infection), EMS providers should assess all patients as follows:

  1. EMS personnel should stay more than 6 feet away from patients and bystanders with symptoms and exercise appropriate routine respiratory droplet precautions while assessing all patients for suspected cases of swine-origin influenza.
  2. Assess all patients for symptoms of acute febrile respiratory illness (fever plus one or more of the following: nasal congestion/ rhinorrhea, sore throat, or cough).
    • If no acute febrile respiratory illness, proceed with normal EMS care.
    • If symptoms of acute febrile respiratory illness, then assess all patients for travel to a geographic area with confirmed cases of swine-origin influenza within the last 7 days or close contact with someone with travel to these areas.
      • If travel exposure, don appropriate PPE for suspected case of swine-origin influenza.
      • If no travel exposure, place a standard surgical mask on the patient (if tolerated) and use appropriate PPE for cases of acute febrile respiratory illness without suspicion of swine-origin influenza (as described in PPE section).

If the CDC confirmed swine-origin influenza in the geographic area (See U.S. Human Cases of H1N1 Flu Infection):

  1. Address scene safety:
    • If PSAP advises potential for acute febrile respiratory illness symptoms on scene, EMS personnel should don PPE for suspected cases of swine-origin influenza prior to entering scene.
    • If PSAP has not identified individuals with symptoms of acute febrile respiratory illness on scene, EMS personnel should stay more than 6 feet away from patient and bystanders with symptoms and exercise appropriate routine respiratory droplet precautions while assessing all patients for suspected cases of swine-origin influenza.
  2. Assess all patients for symptoms of acute febrile respiratory illness (fever plus one or more of the following: nasal congestion/rhinorrhea, sore throat, or cough).
    • If no symptoms of acute febrile respiratory illness, provide routine EMS care.
    • If symptoms of acute febrile respiratory illness, don appropriate PPE for suspected case of swine-origin influenza if not already on.

Personal protective equipment (PPE):

Interim recommendations:

  • When treating a patient with a suspected case of swine-origin influenza as defined above, the following PPE should be worn:
    • Fit-tested disposable N95 respirator and eye protection (e.g., goggles; eye shield), disposable non-sterile gloves, and gown, when coming into close contact with the patient.
  • When treating a patient that is not a suspected case of swine-origin influenza but who has symptoms of acute febrile respiratory illness, the following precautions should be taken:
    • Place a standard surgical mask on the patient, if tolerated. If not tolerated, EMS personnel may wear a standard surgical mask.
    • Use good respiratory hygiene – use non-sterile gloves for contact with patient, patient secretions, or surfaces that may have been contaminated. Follow hand hygiene including hand washing or cleansing with alcohol based hand disinfectant after contact.
  • Encourage good patient compartment vehicle airflow/ ventilation to reduce the concentration of aerosol accumulation when possible.

Infection Control:

EMS agencies should always practice basic infection control procedures including vehicle/equipment decontamination, hand hygiene, cough and respiratory hygiene, and proper use of FDA cleared or authorized medical personal protective equipment (PPE).

Interim recommendations:

  • Pending clarification of transmission patterns for this virus, EMS personnel who are in close contact with patients with suspected or confirmed swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) cases should wear a fit-tested disposable N95 respirator, disposable non-sterile gloves, eye protection (e.g., goggles; eye shields), and gown, when coming into close contact with the patient.
  • All EMS personnel engaged in aerosol generating activities (e.g. endotracheal intubation, nebulizer treatment, and resuscitation involving emergency intubation or cardiac pulmonary resuscitation) should wear a fit-tested disposable N95 respirator, disposable non-sterile gloves, eye protection (e.g., goggles; eye shields), and gown, unless EMS personnel are able to rule out acute febrile respiratory illness or travel to an endemic area in the patient being treated.
  • All patients with acute febrile respiratory illness should wear a surgical mask, if tolerated by the patient.

Interfacility Transport

EMS personnel involved in the interfacility transfer of patients with suspected or confirmed swine-origin influenza should use standard, droplet and contact precautions for all patient care activities. This should include wearing a fit-tested disposable N95 respirator, wearing disposable non-sterile gloves, eye protection (e.g., goggles, eyeshield), and gown, to prevent conjunctival exposure. If the transported patient can tolerate a facemask (e.g., a surgical mask), its use can help to minimize the spread of infectious droplets in the patient care compartment. Encourage good patient compartment vehicle airflow/ventilation to reduce the concentration of aerosol accumulation when possible.

Interim Guidance for Cleaning EMS Transport Vehicles After Transporting a Suspected or Confirmed Swine-origin Influenza Patient

The following are general guidelines for cleaning or maintaining EMS transport vehicles and equipment after transporting a suspected or confirmed swine-origin influenza patient. This guidance may be modified or additional procedures may be recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as new information becomes available.

Routine cleaning with soap or detergent and water to remove soil and organic matter, followed by the proper use of disinfectants, are the basic components of effective environmental management of influenza. Reducing the number of influenza virus particles on a surface through these steps can reduce the chances of hand transfer of virus. Influenza viruses are susceptible to inactivation by a number of chemical disinfectants readily available from consumer and commercial sources.

After the patient has been removed and prior to cleaning, the air within the vehicle may be exhausted by opening the doors and windows of the vehicle while the ventilation system is running. This should be done outdoors and away from pedestrian traffic. Routine cleaning methods should be employed throughout the vehicle and on non-disposable equipment.

For additional detailed guidance on ambulance decontamination EMS personnel may refer to "Interim Guidance for Cleaning Emergency Medical Service Transport Vehicles during an Influenza Pandemic".

EMS Transfer of Patient Care to a Healthcare Facility

When transporting a patient with symptoms of acute febrile respiratory illness, EMS personnel should notify the receiving healthcare facility so that appropriate infection control precautions may be taken prior to patient arrival. Patients with acute febrile respiratory illness should wear a surgical mask, if tolerated. Small facemasks are available that can be worn by children, but it may be problematic for children to wear them correctly and consistently. Moreover, no facemasks (or respirators) have been cleared by the FDA specifically for use by children.

 

 

Comments   

 
Molly
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsMolly 2014-03-04 22:52
What's up it's me, I am also visiting thiss web site daily, thiks site is
genu inely fastidious and the visitors are truly sharing
nice thoughts.

Visi t my blog :: national air ambulance ([censored]:[ce nsored][censore d]globalairambu lance.weebly.co m: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]globalairambul ance.weebly.com [censored]1[cen sored]post[cens ored]2014[censo red]01[censored ]what-to-consid er-when-choosin g-an-air-ambula nce-service-com pany.html)
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Burton
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsBurton 2014-04-06 11:12
Hey Ι know tɦis is off topic bbut І was wondering іf yoս kոew of any widgets
I cߋuld add to mү blpg that automatically tweet mу
neѡe st twitter updates. Ι've been lookiոg for a plug-in
liκe this fօr գuite some ttime and wass hooing maybe you woսld have some experience wіth sometɦing lie
thіs . Ρlease let me know if уoս rսn into anything.
Ι truly enjoy reading ƴour blog aոd I look forward to your new updates.


Mƴ web site - developers - Burton: [censored]s:[ce nsored][censore d]www.youtube.c om[censored]wat ch?v=S8DSInDrya c -
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Valorie
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsValorie 2014-04-24 18:40
I’m not that much of a internet reader to be honest but your blogs really
nice , keep it up! I'll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back later.
All the best

My web page: Miracle Phytoceramides Review (my.nabcep.org: [censored]s:[ce nsored][censore d]my.nabcep.org [censored]node[ censored]30494[ censored]edit[c ensored]1)
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Marietta
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsMarietta 2014-06-01 04:58
Hi there friends, how is everything, and what you
want to say concerning this article, in my view its really
awes ome designed for me.

my website ... Carpet Cleaning Gainesville Fl: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]gainesvillecar petcleaning.web s.com[censored]
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Susanne
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsSusanne 2014-06-19 06:45
Hey! This is kind of off topic but I need some
advi ce from an established blog. Is it very difficult to set uup your own blog?

I'm not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty quick.
I'm thinking about ssetting up my ownn but I'm not sure where to start.
Do you have any ideas or suggestions? Thanks

Have a look at my web site - midtown atlanta luxury apartments: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]skyhousesouth. com[censored]ap artments-in-atl anta[censored]
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Robbie
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsRobbie 2014-06-29 00:29
Hi all, hеre every one is sharing such know-how, thus it's fastidious to гead this blog,
and I used to vіsit this blog everyday.

my site domestic rhi: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]www.naturalgre enservices.co.u k[censored]dome stic[censored]d omestic-rhi-ren ewable-heat-inc entive
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Latashia
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsLatashia 2014-07-03 03:17
I was recommended this web site by means of my cousin. I am now not certain whether
this put up is written by means of him as nobody else recognise suxh particular approximately my difficulty.
You are incredible! Thanks!

Look at my blog; Natural Remedies For Sore
Thro at: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]www.naturalrem ediesforsorethr oat.com[censore d]
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Lilliana
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsLilliana 2014-07-03 18:18
Wow, wonderful blog layout! How lengthy have you ever been running a blog for?
you made blogging glance easy. The total look of your web site
is excellent, let alone the content material!

my weblog ... fifa world cup
2014 squads: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]www.footballwo rldcup2014.in[c ensored]
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Lydia
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsLydia 2014-07-06 20:32
I'm not sure exactly why but this website is loading incredibly slow for me.
Is anyonne else having this problem oor is it a issue on my end?

I'll check back latedr on and see if the problem still exists.



my site ... wordpressseotri cks: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]www.wpseotrick s.com[censored] category[censor ed]seo[censored ]
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Rusty
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsRusty 2014-07-18 16:22
Very great post. I just stumbled upon your
blog and wanted to say that I've really enjoyed browsing your
blog posts. After all I'll be subscribing on your rss feed and I'm
hopi ng you write again very soon!

my webpage - academy lewis
howe s: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]www.sneakertub e.tv[censored]u sers[censored]J WXHC
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Nebulizer
0 # NebulizerNebulizer 2014-08-09 11:14
This is a great article. I’ve read in many other places before that but
I did not get this type of effective and more useful text. It is really important now to
vary your anchors as this seems more natural to user.
This article helped me a lot to understand information.
Nebu lizer
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Nicki
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsNicki 2014-09-19 01:56
Hi there Dear, are you truly visiting this web site on a regular basis, if so after
that you will without doubt take nice experience.


My website organic seo press: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]www.weboptimiz ers.net
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Margherita
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsMargherita 2015-07-01 06:33
Excellent weblog here! Additionally your web site lots up fast!
What host are you the usage of? Can I am getting your affiliate hyperlink for your host?
I wish my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

My web-site - instant face lift: [censored]s:[ce nsored][censore d]lulznet.com[c ensored]wiki[ce nsored]Best_Way s_For_Dealing_W ith_Teenage_Acn e
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Bessie
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsBessie 2015-07-10 15:13
Great article.

my weblog; Twin Cities Web Design: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]www.glory-of-w ar.de[censored] index.php?mod=u sers&action=vie w&id=642428
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Willian
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsWillian 2015-07-19 01:36
What's up i am kavin, its my first time to commenting anyplace, when i read this paragraph i thought i could
also make comment due to this good article.

My blog post - revlante: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]www.xaymaca.in fo[censored]cli cks_manager[cen sored]out.php?u rl=[censored]:[ censored][censo red]revlanteski ncare.net[censo red]
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Magdalena
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsMagdalena 2015-07-27 03:16
Nice answer back in return of this question with genuine arguments and explaining everything
conc erning that.

Also visit my web page: minnesota web design: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]daterateme.com [censored]index .php[censored]c ommunity[censor ed]groups[censo red]viewgroup[c ensored]15219-f ive-for-choosin g-website-desig ners
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Roland
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsRoland 2015-08-06 07:47
Hey! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with hackers?
My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing many months of hard work
due to no backup. Do you have any methods to prevent hackers?


Feel free to surf to my website :: minneapolis internet marketing: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]home.lemobit.c om[censored]spa ce.php?uid=3453 3&do=blog&id=11 1726
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Dyan
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsDyan 2015-09-08 01:17
Aw, this was an exceptionally good post. Taking the time and actual effort to generate a top notch article… but what can I say… I hesitate a whole lot and never manage to get nearly anything done.



Also visit my web blog: Oz Naturals Eye Treatment: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]leea.ru[censor ed]index.php[ce nsored]componen t[censored]k2[c ensored]author[ censored]213310
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Nestor
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsNestor 2015-09-14 10:52
Right away I am going to do my breakfast, afterward having my breakfast coming yet again to read additional news.


Stop by my blog :: pro testosterone: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]www.nuzulifitr iadi.com[censor ed]detail[censo red]3223[censor ed]1258131600[c ensored]berita[ censored]
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 
 
Audry
0 # Managing Confirmed or Suspected InfectionsAudry 2016-03-22 18:18
s quite important to define the target audience including their concerns and aspirations.
Beca use it will those players that realise that their football career won't end when they stop playing or coaching.
Deci ding on the right demographics for your network advertising and marketing advertising can be invaluable due to the fact you can immediate your advertising
corr ect at your target market.

my blog :: facebook Advertsing: [censored]:[cen sored][censored ]M.youtube.com[ censored]watch? v=gBT70G_lE70
Reply | Reply with quote | Quote
 

Add comment


Security code
Refresh