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Mumps



MUMPS

Mumps is an acute viral illness caused by the mumps virus, (paramyxovirus ) which is spread from person to person through airborne transmission or by direct contact with infected droplet nuclei or saliva. Before a vaccine was available mumps was a very common childhood illness. The incubation period of mumps is 14–18 days (range, 14–25 days). Mumps is best known for the swelling of the cheeks and jaw that it causes, a result of inflammation of the salivary glands. Mumps also causes a fever and headache. It is usually a mild disease, but it leads to meningitis in about 1 child in 10 who get the disease. It can occasionally cause encephalitis, deafness (about 1 in 20,000 cases), or even death (about 1 in 10,000 cases).

       

 

 

SYMPTOMS

• After a incubation period of 14 to 18 days, mumps begins with general malaise and fever, followed by the swelling of the parotid (salivary) glands. Recovery is usually complete within approximately a week.

• Complications such as aseptic meningitis, deafness, orchitis (inflammation of the testis), and pancreatitis may appear, especially among adults.

• No specific treatment is currently available.

DESCRIPTION

Mumps is an acute viral illness caused by the mumps virus, (paramyxovirus ) which is spread from person to person through airborne transmission or by direct contact with infected droplet nuclei or saliva. Before a vaccine was available mumps was a very common childhood illness. The incubation period of mumps is 14–18 days (range, 14–25 days). Mumps is best known for the swelling of the cheeks and jaw that it causes, a result of inflammation of the salivary glands. Mumps also causes a fever and headache. It is usually a mild disease, but it leads to meningitis in about 1 child in 10 who get the disease. It can occasionally cause encephalitis, deafness (about 1 in 20,000 cases), or even death (about 1 in 10,000 cases).

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Mumps vaccine is available as a single-antigen preparation, combined with measles and rubella, known as MMR vaccine. MMR is indicated for active immunization in children of 12 months to 12 years of age against Measles, Mumps and Rubella infections simultaneously. The first dose of mumps-containing vaccine should be given on or after the first birthday. The second dose of MMR vaccine should be given routinely at age 4–6 years, before a child enters kindergarten or first grade. Mumps vaccine produces an inapparent, or mild, noncommunicable infection. More than 97% of recipients of a single dose develop measurable antibody. The duration of vaccine-induced immunity is believed to be greater than 25 years, and is probably lifelong in most vaccine recipients.

Demonstration of mumps IgG antibody by any commonly used serologic assay is acceptable evidence of mumps immunity. Persons who have an “equivocal” serologic test result should be considered susceptible to mumps.

Vaccination after exposure is not harmful and may possibly avert later disease.

Reconstitute the freeze dried vaccine by adding 0.5 ml of the diluent (sterile water for injection) to the single-dose vial by using sterile disposable syringe and needle. With gentle shaking the dried cake is easily dissolved. After reconstitution the vaccine should be used immediately. A single dose of 0.5 ml should be administered by deep subcutaneous injection into the upper arm.
The reconstituted vaccine must be used immediately otherwise it should be discarded.