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Hepatities B



HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B 

Not long ago Hib disease (Haemophilus Influenzae type b) was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children less than 5 years old. As recently as the mid-1980s it struck one child out of every 200 in that age group. Nearly all Hib infections occurred among children younger than 5 years of age, and approximately two-thirds of all cases occurred among children younger than 18 months of age. About 1 in 4 of these children suffered permanent brain damage, and about 1 in 20 died. 

Hib disease is spread through the air by coughing, sneezing, and even breathing. If the bacteria stay in a child’s nose and throat, the child will probably not get sick. But if they spread to the lungs or bloodstream, the child can get meningitis (inflammation of the covering of the brain), pneumonia, epiglottitis (inflammation in the throat), arthritis, or other problems. A child who is infected can spread the disease to others for as long as the bacteria remain in the body. Antibiotics can stop spread in 2 to 4 days.

DESCRIPTION

Not long ago Hib disease (Haemophilus Influenzae type b) was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children less than 5 years old. As recently as the mid-1980s it struck one child out of every 200 in that age group. Nearly all Hib infections occurred among children younger than 5 years of age, and approximately two-thirds of all cases occurred among children younger than 18 months of age. About 1 in 4 of these children suffered permanent brain damage, and about 1 in 20 died.

Hib disease is spread through the air by coughing, sneezing, and even breathing. If the bacteria stay in a child’s nose and throat, the child will probably not get sick. But if they spread to the lungs or bloodstream, the child can get meningitis (inflammation of the covering of the brain), pneumonia, epiglottitis (inflammation in the throat), arthritis, or other problems. A child who is infected can spread the disease to others for as long as the bacteria remain in the body. Antibiotics can stop spread in 2 to 4 days.

 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

0.5 ml of Hib vaccine is injected into a muscle.

Children should get either 3 or 4 doses of Hib vaccine. The vaccine is recommended at 6 wks, 10 wks, 14wks, and 15 to 18 months of age.

SCHEDULE

Children should get either 3 or 4 doses of Hib vaccine. The vaccine is recommended at 6 wks, 10 wks, 14wks, and 15 to 18 months of age.

Age

Vaccines

Note

6 weeks

Hib -1

Hib vaccine can be given along with DPT.

10 weeks

Hib -2

Hib vaccine can be given along with DPT.

14 weeks

Hib -3

Hib vaccine can be given along with DPT.

15-18 months

Hib booster

Hib vaccine can be given along with DPT.

ADVERSE EVENTS

Very rarely (in less than one in ten thousand children) some children may be unresponsive after vaccination or can have a severe allergic reaction to the vaccine. Your child may be asked to stay in the surgery or vaccination area for a short time after vaccination to check that he/she does not have an immediate allergic reaction.

Also tell the doctor or nurse immediately if your child develops a rash, or swelling of the face and neck. These side effects occur in less than one in a hundred but more than one in a thousand children.

The most common side effects (in at least one in a hundred and often one in ten children) are problems at the injection site, such as redness, pain and mild swelling. These side effects may occur in the first 48 hours after vaccination but should not normally be a cause for concern. Injection site problems are more common with booster doses than with the first three doses in infants.

Other side effects include:

  • In more than one in ten children: fever, unusual crying, loss of appetite and restlessness. After booster doses, sleepiness and nervousness.
  • In less than one in ten but more than one in a hundred children: feeling or being sick, diarrhoea, nervousness.
  • In less than one in a hundred but more than one in a thousand children: increased sweating, purple blotches or pin points under the skin, moodiness, sleeplessness, tiredness, unsteadiness, lumps at the injection site. After booster doses, infections in the ear, nose and throat.

Some children may be unresponsive after vaccination or can have a severe allergic reaction to the vaccine. Your child may be asked to stay in the surgery or vaccination area for a short time after vaccination to check that he/she does not have an immediate allergic reaction.

Also tell the doctor or nurse immediately if your child develops a rash, or swelling of the face and neck. These side effects occur in less than one in hundred but more than one in a thousand children.

CONTRAINDICATIONS AND PRECAUTIONS

Hib vaccine should not be given to children younger than 6 weeks of age. This is not because it is unsafe but because it might not protect as well if given too early.

Vaccination with Hib conjugate vaccine is contraindicated for persons known to have experienced a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) to a vaccine component or following a prior dose of that vaccine. Vaccination should be delayed for children with moderate or severe acute illnesses. Minor illnesses (e.g., mild upper respiratory infection) are not contraindications to vaccination.

  • Do you think your child is or may be allergic/sensitive to Hib vaccine or to the other ingredients present in the vaccine (lactose or tetanus toxoid)? For example, has your child ever had an allergic reaction to any Hib vaccine before or to any vaccine that contained tetanus toxoid?
  • Does your child have a fever or an infection?
  • Has your child ever been vaccinated against Haemophilus influenzae type b and felt unwell following the vaccination?
  • Does your child have any bleeding or blood disorders?
  • Does your child have any illness that may affect the immune system?
  • Is your child taking medicines or having any treatment which may affect the immune system?

STORAGE

  • All Hib conjugate vaccines should be shipped in insulated containers to prevent freezing. Unreconstituted vaccine should be stored at refrigerator temperature 2°C to  8°C. Hib vaccine must not be frozen and protected from light until it is administered. The doctor or nurse should check that the expiry date on the carton has not passed.
  • Keep out of the reach and sight of children.